Media education in Malta

The definition of media has changed dramatically since the turn of the century.

“Traditional” media such as television and radio have given way to the internet and social media. This change has led to a greater emphasis on what has come to be known as “fake news”, “misinformation” or “disinformation”, broadly defined in this article as false information spread over the Internet.

Like the rest of the world, Malta has not been immune to fake news on social media and other forms of online misinformation.

Misinformation around COVID-19 has spread across the country with the pandemic. Just last year, Malta was also involved in the creation of parody websites pretending to be Newspaper, Net News, Lovin Malta, Strada Rjali and A news. This is of particular concern, given that in a ranking of resilience to fake news, Malta ranked 21st among the 27 countries of the European Union.

A logical area to turn to is education. European Commission tackles online disinformation recognizeed “The lifelong development of critical and digital skills, especially for young people, is crucial to building the resilience of our societies to disinformation” (Pg. 12).

Unfortunately, in PISA 2018 (Programme for International Student Assessment), Malta ranked below medium to distinguish fact from opinion (p. 45) as well as reading performance.

Things can change. Students are retaking PISA this year and in various interviews with teachers, education officials and the principal of a primary school, a few points were clearly agreed:

  1. education around media literacy should start as early as possible;
  2. all classes and subjects should participate in teaching media literacy, where appropriate;
  3. there is more to do.

Primary education seems to reach the first point. On “Digital Literacy Malta” Web pageThere is a page dedicated to “digital citizenship” and one for parentsalso.

The “Digital Citizenship” website includes fake news lesson plans and citation resources, and the parents’ page has kid-friendly search engines. In addition, the Digital Literacy and Transversal Skills Directorate has worked with the EU and the Erasmus+ program to develop “eTwinning Malta”, a multi-faceted initiative that offers “collaborative interdisciplinary projects” across Europe.

Digital citizenship, which includes media literacy, on primary webpage (above) versus secondary webpage (below).

Last year they held two media literacy workshops for educators, one in April and one in September. eTwinning also awarded the title “eTwinning Schools” to 16 schools (14 primary) in its first year and 10 (9 primary) in its second year.

The Digital Citizenship website and media literacy workshops are important steps towards achieving education leaders’ primary goal of teaching media literacy early and often.

The second point – that all classes and all subjects should participate in media education – has not been fully achieved. Secondary schools teach a wider range of subjects, so it would make sense for these schools to have the same number of media literacy resources as primary schools.

As the pedagogical manager of the Department of Digital Culture and Transversal Skills, Vincent Carabott, declared, “I believe that all the subjects have integrated into them an aspect[s] digital and media literacy if we care to identify them and provide students with an additional opportunity to learn.

A solid avenue to create this opportunity for students is found in the same website discussed in the previous paragraph.

While the main page contains a number of digital and media literacy resources that can be used in multiple ways, the Secondary page contains five links in total, including a digital citizenship lesson plan that does not cover media literacy and a YouTube link that defines fake news.

If modeled on the main website, this page could prove to be a valuable resource for publicizing cross-disciplinary lessons on media literacy and online disinformation.

In addition, several secondary school teachers recognized and admired the eTwinning program but had not heard of it. Made for alla more specific workshop focusing on countering misinformation, which recently has begun. Facts4All and eTwinning are open to primary and secondary schools, but eTwinning schools are mainly primary.

Greater inclusion of secondary schools can create additional access to its media literacy workshops and increased marketing of other opportunities, such as Facts4All, could provide alternative options for teachers to receive more training.

Malta has the resources, platforms and initiatives in place to consolidate media literacy up to secondary school. With the Covid-19 pandemic and the war in ukraine proving to be fertile ground for the spread of fake news, creating critical media consumers has never been more important for Malta.

Daniel Hopkins is a secondary school teacher from the United States and is currently on a Fulbright scholarship to Malta as an English teaching assistant.

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Donnie J. Milburn